In hot water: effects of climate change on Vibrio–human interactions
Sea level rise and the anthropogenic warming of the world's oceans is not only an environmental tragedy, but these changes also result in a significant threat to public health. Along with coastal flooding and the encroachment of saltwater farther inland comes an increased risk of human interaction with pathogenic Vibrio species, such as Vibrio cholerae,V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus. This minireview examines the current literature for updates on the climatic changes and practices that impact the location and duration of the presence of Vibrio spp., as well as the infection routes, trends and virulence factors of these highly successful pathogens. Finally, an overview of current treatments and methods for the mitigation of both oral and cutaneous exposures are presented.